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The Truth about Water Contamination

Source: This informational article is part of a larger U.S. EPA publication: EPA National Primary Drinking Water Regulations.

Clean drinking water is something that the public has pretty much taken for granted for the past hundred years. The public has little idea–perhaps understandably–just how contaminated our drinking water has become. Our environment has changed, new biological transformations are emerging, drinking- water systems are aging, and governments seem more interested in ensuring business in the global marketplace than in ensuring the safety and health of the world citizens.

Acid rain corrodes copper, lead, and galvanized pipes. There are hundreds of agricultural pollutants, including pesticides and fertilizer, industrial pollutants including plasticizers, solvents, and propellants; along with chemicals added to aid in the coagulation of water can be of great concern to water pollution.

A National Assessment of Tap Water Quality found 260 contaminants in our nation’s tap water; 141 of these contaminants have no enforceable safety limits. Of the 141 unregulated contaminants utilities detected in water supplies between 1998 and 2003,

  • 52 are linked to cancer
  • 41 to reproductive toxicity
  • 36 to developmental toxicity
  • and 16 to immune system damage

According to chemical listings in seven standard government and industry toxicity references. Despite the potential health risks, any concentration of these chemicals in tap water is legal, no matter how high.

What follows is a very long article detailing all types of water contaminates. The short version is that if this is something that you are concerned about, Chanson Water has solutions for all of your water needs with our ionizers and we offer pre-filters of every kind to filter out any potential contaminate in your water system. We even offer to read your community water report and tell you exactly what filters are appropriate for you needs. Here in Orange County, California they have announced that by June of 2008 they will be giving us reclaimed sewer water from out tap! You bet we will be reviewing our water report at that time to see what pre-filters we need to ad to our current ionization system!

The EPA’s own scientists have identified 600 chemicals in tap water formed as by-products of disinfections–they tracked 220 million pounds of 650 industrial chemicals discharged to rivers and streams annually. They also spearheaded research on emerging contaminants after the U.S. Geological

Survey found: 82 unregulated pharmaceuticals, hormones, medications, and residues of consumer products in rivers and streams across the country.

Intensive use of highly acidic antibiotics in human and veterinarian medicine and in industrial farming (food additives) has resulted in the transport of significant quantities of the active ingredients to environmental waters. All told, EPA has set safety standards for fewer than 20 percent of the many hundreds of chemicals that it has identified in our drinking water.

Many of these compounds enter the human body through our skin when we bathe or swim.

By failing to clean up rivers and reservoirs that provide drinking water for hundreds of millions of Americans, EPA and the Congress have forced water utility companies to decontaminate water that is polluted with industrial chemicals, factory farm waste, sewage, pesticides, fertilizer, and sediment.

In its most recent national Water Quality Inventory EPA found that 45 percent of lakes and 39 percent of streams and rivers are “impaired”–unsafe for drinking, fishing, or even swimming, in some cases.

Even after water suppliers filter and disinfect the water, scores of contaminants remain, with conventional treatment regimes removing less than 20 percent of some contaminants. By failing to set tap water safety standards expeditiously or require and fund comprehensive testing, EPA allows widespread exposures to chemical mixtures posing known risks to human health.

A Fractional Damage Assessment from Acid Rain

Acid rain is produced when nitrous oxide, sulphur dioxide, and carbon dioxide gas in the upper atmosphere react with water particles to produce nitric acid, sulphuric acid, and carbonic acid respectively. Unpolluted rainfall normally balanced alkaline pH of about 7.1 to 7.3, whilst acid rain has a pH that varies from 4.1 to 5.5.

Rainwater was naturally slightly alkaline because it contained a small amount of dissolved carbon dioxide gas. This forms a small amount of carbonic acid. Acid rain contains abnormally high levels of carbonic acid (from the excessive amounts of carbon dioxide released in the atmosphere from burning fossil fuel).

The word equation is: Carbon dioxide + water = carbonic acid
When we burn fossil fuels (especially coal), sulphur dioxide is made and released into the air.

When sulphur dioxide dissolves in rainwater, it makes sulphuric acid.

Sulphur dioxide + water = sulfuric acid

Sulphur Dioxide reacts with a wide range of substances found in food, including various essential vitamins, minerals and essential fatty acids.

Sulfuric acid is actually a mixture of acids in high concentrations. Sulfuric acid is much stronger than carbonic acid. It is extremely corrosive and it causes damage to rocks, animals, and plants.

Sulfuric acid can cause severe burns to all body tissue and may be fatal if swallowed or contacted with skin. It is harmful if inhaled; it affects teeth; it is a cancerous hazard.

Strong inorganic acid mists containing sulfuric acid can lead to cancerous tissues.

Nitrous oxides react with water vapor to form nitric acid. Nitric acid is a highly corrosive and toxic acid that can cause severe burns.

Nitrous oxides + water = nitric acid

Nitric acid is a cancerous-causing agent. It is also a powerful dehydrating agent, so powerful that much of the damage it does to the human body is because it pulls water even out of other molecules in chemical reactions.

Apart from emissions of sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides from the combustion of fossil fuels, there are also other substances that contribute to acid rain formation. These include hydrochloric acid and organic carboxylic acids. These organic acids include acetic acid and formic acid and are formed when volatile organic compounds are oxidized in the air.

Acid rain causes a cascade of effects that harm or kill individual fish, reduce fish population numbers, completely eliminating fish species from a body of water, and decrease biodiversity. Damages also show up in land animals, affecting their behavior and feeding patterns. Acid rain kills trees, crops, and other vegetation; damages buildings and monuments; corrodes copper, galvanized steel, and lead piping; damages such manufactured things as automobiles; and reduces soil fertility.

Acid rain can raise the level of heavy metals, many of which are carcinogenic, teratogenic, transforming, reproductive toxins, or neurological toxins in drinking water supplies.

Pure acid water extracted from drinking water will burn holes in the outer membranes of micro-forms like parasites, bacteria, yeast, and microscopic worms. Pure acid water will transform parasites and their eggs, bacteria, yeast and mold. Pure acid water has a strong oxidation potential (a shortage of electrons) giving it the ability to ferment, spoil and sterilize. When extracted from drinking water about one third of the water is acid water (and the third part of the waters became wormwood). Think of the effects it can have on the plant, animal or human body.

Acid rain raises the level of heavy metals, some of which are poisonous, in drinking water supplies. Polluted acidic waters contain higher than average levels of heavy and toxic metals, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), photochemical oxidants, and a laundry list of other toxins that pose serious health threats.

Some acidic toxins enter the human body through air, water, and/or through our skin (when we bathe or swim many of these toxins are absorbed through our skin). Other poisonous metals and toxins that are dissolved into the rain water are absorbed by the fruit, vegetables we eat.

All of the meat we eat is saturated with acidic toxins that were absorbed through the skin and into the tissue of the animals. In addition, animals eat these plants and other animals,perpetuating the cycle. Many heavy metals are bio-accumulative and highly acidic. They can accumulate in the soft tissues when the body cannot metabolize them so they end up in the connective and fatty tissues.

Acid rain contains caustic acids that tend to make the pH of the human body more acidic. Drinking acidic water can cause many serious dis-eases. All of the water we drink (including bottled, purified, reverse osmosis, and some distilled waters) contain these acids. It can be difficult to balance the pH of people consuming water loaded with these poisonous acidic wastes.

Breathing acidic air fogs (including hot shower or bath water) can damage our respiratory system which is why is going to offer shower and bath water filters. Some of these acids are powerful dehydrating agents, so powerful that much of the damage they do to the human body is because they pull water even out of other molecules in chemical reactions.

Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are toxic acidic chemicals that adversely affect human health and the environment around the world. Because they can be transported by wind and water, most POPs generated in one country can affect people and wildlife far from where they are used and released. They persist for long periods of time in the environment and can accumulate and pass from one species to the next through the food chain.

Although scientists have more to learn about POPs acidic chemicals, decades of scientific research have greatly increased our knowledge of POPs’ impacts on people and wildlife. For example, laboratory studies have shown that low doses of certain POPs adversely affect some organ systems and aspects of development. Studies also have shown that chronic exposure to low doses of certain POPs can result in reproductive and immune system deficits.

Exposure to high levels of certain POPs chemicals – higher than normally encountered by humans and wildlife – can cause serious damage or death.

There are acids called dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in the food supply. Dioxin and dioxin-like compounds, or DLCs, are found throughout the environment, in soil, water, and air. People are exposed to these unintentional environmental contaminants primarily through the food supply, particularly by eating animal fat in meat, dairy products, and fish. Another reason to avoid eating acidic animal flesh, dairy or fish.

According to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, over 90% of our exposure to acidic dioxins is through food, with major sources including beef, dairy products, milk, chicken, pork, fish, and eggs. Dioxins are also passed from mother to developing infant across the placenta and through breastfeeding. Dioxins, PCBs, DDT and other organochlorines are among the 200 plus chemicals found in human breast milk today that can lead to a host of infant dis-ease.

Acidic dioxins and related compounds are highly persistent in the environment and in living organisms. PCB’s can remain in human connective and fat tissue for decades. It is believed that almost all living beings on earth have dioxin- like compounds in their body tissues.

No amount of dioxin exposure can be considered safe, as very small amounts have been associated with impaired developmental, reproductive, neurological, and immune function. Acidic dioxin is one of the most toxic chemicals known to humankind.

The cancerous risk from eating animal flesh contaminated with acidic dioxin is another clear warning that livestock foods have a direct impact on human food quality and safety.

The health risks posed by the levels of acidic dioxins in human foods and animal feeds have yet to be ascertained by government officials. Therefore, conveniently, governments do not recommend regulatory limits on acidic dioxins or dioxin-like compounds in food or feed (even though PCBs and dioxin are known endocrine disruptors).

Nitrate is a chemical that enters water from fertilizer runoff, leaching septic tanks, and erosion of natural deposits. Potential health impacts associated with the acid nitrite includes cardiovascular or acidic blood toxicity, acidic kidney toxicity, and acidic reproductive toxicity.

The acid nitrate is one of the most common groundwater contaminants in rural areas. Fertilizer nitrogen that is not taken up by plants, volatilized, or carried away by surface runoff – leaches to the groundwater in the form of the acid nitrate. Septic systems also can elevate groundwater nitrate concentrations because they remove only half of the nitrogen in wastewater, leaving the remaining half to percolate to groundwater.

An Environmental Working Group analysis of Nitrate tests reported by 32,210 public water suppliers in 41 states shows that between 1998 and 2003, 176 million people in 23,704 communities drank acidic water contaminated with nitrate. In 657 of these communities, tap water was contaminated at levels above health-based thresholds.

Nitrate occurs in the environment, in air, food (particularly in vegetables and fruits) and water, and is produced endogenously. It is also used as a food additive, mainly as a preservative and anti-microbial agent. It is used in foods such as cheese and cheese products, raw and processed meats, edible casings, processed fish and fish products and spirits and liqueurs.

Since most of our produce is grown with potassium, nitrogen, and phosphorous fertilizers, and irrigated with water that is contaminated with nitrate (and about 600 other contaminates), the produce we eat contains unnaturally high levels of nitrate. Synergistically unbalanced and contaminated acidic food will not sustain our health; it will actually poison us to death.

What are the health effects? Nitrates can react with hemoglobin to reduce the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood. Nitrates may combine with other substances to form nitrosamines, which are carcinogenic, and it may have an atrophying affect on the adrenal gland.

Short-term: Excessive levels of nitrate in drinking water have caused serious illness and sometimes death. In some parts of the country, beets, turnips, carrots, collard greens and spinach contain large amounts of nitrates, a chemical that can cause an unusual type of anemia (low blood count) in young infants, referred to as methemoglobinemia or blue baby syndrome. Symptoms include shortness of breath and blueness of the skin. The serious illness in infants is due to the conversion of nitrate to nitrite by the body, which interferes with the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood; blue baby syndrome can be an acute condition in which health deteriorates rapidly over a period of days.

Long-term: Nitrates and nitrites have the potential to cause the following effects from a lifetime exposure at levels above the maximum contaminant level: excessive discharge of urine, increased starchy deposits and hemorrhaging of the spleen.

Heavy metal aberrations found in our drinking water are directly causative or associative with dis-ease and ill health. A few examples are anemia, cardiac conditions, depression, digestive problems, high blood pressure, hormone imbalance, impaired growth, infertility, insomnia, learning and behavioral problems, osteoporosis, chronic inflammation, and tumor proliferation.

Heavy metal toxins contribute to a variety of adverse health effects. There are more than 65 different heavy metals and toxic acidic compounds that impact human health.

Accumulation within the body can lead to a decline in the mental, cognitive, and physical health of the individual. Many of these pollutants are carcinogenic, teratogenic, reproductive acidic toxins, or neurological acidic toxins.

The increased acidity of rain also releases many minerals that do not naturally occur or do not belong in water at these disproportionate levels, thus producing what is called hard water.

As a result, these acidic toxins are consumed in drinking water or are ingested by plants, animals, or aquatic life, which are then eaten by humans.

When numerous metals are present in the body, they have a “synergistic toxicity.” Dr. Boyd Haley, professor and chair of the chemistry department at the University of Kentucky, performed a study on rats and found that the mortality rate of rats exposed to a small dose of mercury or aluminum killed only 1 rat in 100. However, when the rats were exposed to both mercury and aluminum at the same time, all 100 rats died – a 100% mortality rate.

Here are a few more ways that acid deposition has altered and continues to alter our soils:

  • Acid deposition depletes calcium, magnesium, and other base minerals from the soil – this depletion of base minerals fundamentally alters soil processes, compromises the nutrition of crops, and hinders the capacity for sensitive soils to recover.
  • Acid deposition facilitates the mobilization of dissolved inorganic minerals into soil water – the increased acidity of rain releases many minerals that do not naturally occur or do not belong in water at these disproportionate levels, thus producing what is called hard water – as a result, they are consumed in drinking water or are ingested by plants, animals, or aquatic life, which are then eaten by humans.
  • Acid deposition increases the accumulation of sulfur and nitrogen in the soil.

To some extent all minerals compete for absorption, compete for the same binding sites. Studies have shown that excesses of particular minerals can result in deficiencies in others; likewise, deficiencies of some minerals promote excesses of others. This mutual dependence means not only are minerals required in optimal amounts but also in relative amounts.

Severe health problems arising from human contact with acidic toxic or hazardous wastes are
increasingly common.

The seriousness of this problem cannot be underestimated in light of findings from the World Health Organization (WHO) who revealed that 60-80% of heavy metal toxins found in human bodies in urban industrial areas were the result of consuming contaminated foods and water rather than through air pollution.

The burning of coal releases many contaminants into the atmosphere, among these are mercury, cadmium, arsenic, and lead.


Mercury occurs primarily in two forms: organic mercury and inorganic mercury. Inorganic mercury and elemental mercury are both toxins that can produce a wide range of adverse health affects. Inorganic mercury is used in thermometers, barometers, dental fillings, batteries, electrical wiring and switches, fluorescent light bulbs, pesticides, fungicides, vaccines, paint, skin-tightening creams, antiseptic creams, pharmaceutical drugs, and other ointments.

Humans have the ability to convert this inorganic mercury to an organic form once it has become absorbed into the bloodstream. Organic mercury is known to bio-accumulate due to the body’s inability to process and eliminate it. Rain is contaminated with mercury from coal-fired electric plants and the burning of fossil fuel. Mercury is one of the heavy metals that cause dangerous inflammation in body tissues. Acidification increases bio-conversion of mercury to methylmercury; methylmercury is a neurotoxin, and the form of mercury that is most easily bio-accumulated in organisms.

Methyl mercury compounds, such as dimethyl mercury, are among the most dangerous. Mercury salts released into the environment may frequently be converted by anaerobic bacteria into such compounds, which can then be carried through the food chain to humans. Methylmercury exposure via food most often occurs when seafood- containing mercury is eaten, or when mercury-containing plants, such as rice, are consumed. Organic mercury is often found in produce, farm animals, processed grains, dairy products, and surface water sources.

Potential health impacts associated with mercury include cancerous states, cardiovascular or blood toxicity, developmental toxicity, endocrine toxicity, gastrointestinal or liver toxicity, immunotoxicity, kidney toxicity, neurotoxicity, reproductive toxicity, respiratory toxicity, and skin sensitivity.

Occupational exposure to mercury containing compounds presents a significant health risk to individuals. Dentists, painters, fishermen, electricians, pharmaceutical/laboratories workers, farmers, factory workers, miners, chemists, and beauticians are just some of the professions chronically exposed to mercury compounds.

An Environmental Working Group analysis of mercury tests reported by 28,299 public water suppliers in 40 states shows that between 1998 and 2003, 18.5 million people in 1,298 communities drank water contaminated with mercury. In 37 of these communities, tap water was contaminated at levels above health-based thresholds.

Environmental Health Perspectives found that 89 percent of their female patients had mercury levels above what most scientists consider safe, and that high mercury levels in adults correlated with memory loss, fatigue, and muscle aches. Another preliminary study this year found that mothers who delivered prematurely were more likely to have high mercury levels.

Unborn babies are at the greatest risk. Babies developing in the womb seem to be most vulnerable to the effects of mercury on their brains and nervous systems. Mercury is poisoning an entire generation of our nation’s children!


Cadmium emissions arise from two major source categories, natural sources and anthropogenic (man-made) sources. Emissions occur to the three major compartments of the environment – air, water, and soil, but there may be considerable transfer between the three compartments after initial deposition.

Man-made cadmium emissions arise either from the manufacture, use and disposal of products intentionally utilizing cadmium, or from the presence of cadmium as a natural but not functional impurity in non-cadmium containing products. Cadmium (for industrial use) is produced in large quantities, over 8 million metric tons in 1999. Cadmium generated by metal smelters/refiners is cemented and buried, stored for future use, or disposed of in landfills as hazardous acidic waste.

Cadmium poses a major concern to food safety because is taken up relatively easily by crops. What makes cadmium unique is that it is not toxic to plants at concentrations of concern to human health. Consumption of crops is the main source of human exposure at approximately 75%. Grains, leafy greens, and root crops are associated with elevated levels of cadmium.

Cadmium accumulates in the body; although a person’s daily intake may be as little as 0.05 milligrams, he or she will have stored, on average, about 50 milligrams. Cadmium is a poison and is known to cause birth defects and cancerous tissue. It can stay in one’s body for years and can also change forms within the body.

Cadmium interferes with the metabolism of copper, iron, calcium, zinc, and vitamin D. An Environmental Working Group analysis of cadmium tests reported by 28,944 public water suppliers in 41 states shows that between 1998 and 2003, 9.5 million people in 1,364 communities drank water contaminated with cadmium. In 1,040 of these communities, tap water was contaminated at levels above health-based thresholds.


According to a 1999 study by the National Academy of Sciences, arsenic in drinking water causes a cancerous bladder, lung, and skin, and may cause a cancerous kidney and liver. The study also found that arsenic harms the central and peripheral nervous systems, as well as heart and blood vessels, and causes serious skin problems. It can cause birth defects and reproductive problems.

Arsenic is a natural element of the earth’s crust. It is used in industry and agriculture, and for other purposes. It also is a byproduct of copper smelting, mining, and coal burning. U.S. industries release thousands of pounds of arsenic into the environment every year.

The use of this toxic element in numerous industrial processes has resulted in its presence in many biological and ecological systems. Ground, surface, and drinking water are susceptible to arsenic poisoning from the use of arsenic in smelting, refining, galvanizing, and power plants; environmental contaminants like pesticides, herbicides, insecticides, fungicides, desiccants, wood preservatives, and animal feed additives; and human made hazardous waste sites, chemical wastes, and antibiotics.

Arsenic suppresses iodine and selenium. It is a carcinogen that inactivates sulfhydryl groups leading to cell death, increases bleeding time, reduces thyroid function by interfering with iodine metabolism, depresses bone marrow involved in methionine metabolism. Low serum arsenic is correlated with central nervous system disorders, vascular disease, and cancerous tissue.

Data compiled by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency on arsenic in drinking water in 25 states found conservative estimates indicate that more than 34
million Americans drink tap water supplied by systems containing average levels of arsenic that pose unacceptable cancerous risks. We consider it likely that as many as 56 million people in those 25 states have been drinking water with arsenic at unsafe levels–and that is just the 25 states that reported arsenic information to the EPA.

Some plants are arsenic-resistant or can block arsenic uptake by their root systems. Still other food crops accumulate arsenic at levels that raise human health concerns. Since plants take up arsenic primarily by their roots, the highest level of arsenic accumulation is usually in roots and tubers, such as carrots and potatoes.

Studies have shown close associations between both inhaled and ingested arsenic and cancerous rates. Cancerous conditions of the skin, liver, respiratory tract, and gastrointestinal tract are well documented in regards to arsenic exposure.


Lead is the 5th most utilized metal in the U.S. Human exposure to lead occurs primarily through drinking water, airborne lead-containing particulates, and lead-based paints. The primary source of lead in drinking water is from lead-based plumbing materials. The corrosion of such materials will continue to increase concentrations of lead in municipal drinking water. The EPA actually allows small amounts of lead to be present in our tap water due to this insurmountable problem. Grounding of household electrical systems to plumbing may also exacerbate corrosion. Corrosion of plumbing is by far the greatest cause for concern. All water is corrosive to metal plumbing materials to some degree.

Lead from water and airborne sources have been shown to accumulate in agricultural areas leading to increased concentrations in agricultural produce and farm animals. Cigarette smoke is also a significant source of lead exposure.

A certain amount of lead is always in our bodies because of the background presence of lead in food, water, and sources in the soil. The EPA estimates that drinking water can make up 20 percent or more of a person’s total exposure to lead. Atmospherically derived lead is a widely distributed contaminant that can inhibit
a range of essential ecosystem processes in soils. Lead has made its way into food, animals, and humans.

Because of the possibility of permanent impairment, lead poisoning is particularly dangerous during the critical development periods of infants and young children under the age of 7 years. Young children, those 6 years and younger, are at particular risk for lead exposure because they have frequent hand-to-mouth activity and absorb lead more easily than do adults. Children’s nervous systems are still undergoing development and are therefore more susceptible to the effects of toxic agents. Lead is also harmful to the developing fetuses of pregnant women.

Lead in drinking water is a significant contributor to overall exposure to lead, particularly for infants whose diet consists of liquids made with water, such
as baby food or formula.

Lead is one of the most toxic elements naturally occurring on Earth. High concentrations of lead can cause irreversible brain damage, seizure, coma, and death if not treated immediately. Evidence suggests that lead may cause fatigue, irritability, memory problems, reduction in sensory and motor reaction times, decision making impairment, and lapses in concentration. In adults, lead is very detrimental to the cardiovascular system.

Occupationally exposed individuals tend to have higher blood pressure and are at an increased risk for cardiovascular disease, myocardial infarction, and stroke. The kidneys are targets of lead toxicity and prone to impairment at moderate to high levels of lead concentrations. Other signs/symptoms of lead toxicity include
gastrointestinal disturbances, abdominal pain, cramps, constipation, anorexia and weight loss, immunosuppression, and some liver impairment. Lead can affect almost every organ and system in our body.

No safe blood lead level in children has been determined. Children absorb lead much more efficiently than adults do after exposure and are susceptible to the most damaging effects of lead toxicity. Lead not only appears to affect cognitive development of young children but also other areas of neuropsychological function.
Low levels of lead in blood have been associated with reduced IQ and attention span, learning disabilities, poor classroom performance, hyperactivity, behavioral
problems, impaired growth, and hearing loss. Very high blood lead levels can cause severe neurological problems such as mental retardation, coma, convulsions, and even death. Lead has been determined by many health experts to be the #1 threat to developing children in our industrial societies.

The most sensitive is the central nervous system (brain), particularly in children. Lead also damages kidneys and the reproductive system. The effects are the same whether it is breathed or swallowed.

An Environmental Working Group analysis of lead tests reported by 21,997 public water suppliers in 35 states shows that between 1998 and 2003, 50.4 million people in 7,942 communities drank water contaminated with lead. In 2,275 of these communities, tap water was contaminated at levels above health-based thresholds.


Inorganic iron is one of the most troublesome elements in water supplies. Making up at least 5 percent of the earth’s crust, iron is one of the earth’s most plentiful resources. Acidic rain water as it infiltrates the soil and underlying geologic formations excessively dissolves iron, causing it to seep into aquifers that serve as sources of groundwater for wells. This is one reason that there is a high prevalence of increased iron stores in the general population of western countries.

Inorganic iron is almost indigestible. When people suffering from anemia are given supplements of inorganic iron, these supplements are poorly absorbed in the gut and can have many unpleasant side effects.

Excess iron accumulates in the pancreas causes tissue injury. Iron affects glucose metabolism. Iron stores are associated with insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion, and insulin resistance. High inorganic iron causes excessive

sodium retention. Tissue iron excess contributes to produce and amplify the injury caused by acidity as well as to modulate various steps involved in the inflammatory lesion. It should not be ignored that chronic inflammation caused by dietary and/or metabolic acid, to some extent, to increase ferritin concentration.


Chromium is abundant in the earth’s crust and is widely dispersed in the environment. It is used extensively in refractory materials and chemicals, as a plating to produce hard and smooth surfaces, to prevent corrosion, and in manufacturing stainless and alloy steels. Major atmospheric emissions of chromium arise from metal producing industries, coal-fired plants, municipal incinerators, and cooling towers.

Chromium-6 or Hexavalent chromium is an inorganic chemical that can be toxic. Chromium-6 has been in the news lately because it has been found in groundwater due to industrial contamination. It was the focus of the popular movie Erin Brockovich.

Hexavalent chromium in the workplace is suspected of being carcinogenic. Excessive exposure to dusts or mists of hexavalent chromium compounds produces dermatitis, skin lesions, and ulceration and perforation of the nasal septum, as well as liver and kidney damage. With long-term exposure to hexavalent chromium compounds, incidence of human lung cancer increases.

An Environmental Working Group analysis of hexavalent chromium tests reported by 1,111 public water suppliers in 3 states shows that between 1998 and 2003, 33.4 million people in 519 communities drank water contaminated with hexavalent chromium.


Barium is a heavy metal released into the air by human activities, mainly barium mines, metal production facilities, and industrial boilers that burn coal and oil. When coal and oil are burned to generate electricity, an ash is produced which contains more than 99% of their barium content. Barium released into the soil and water comes from copper smelters and oil drilling waste disposal sites. Industries reporting to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released 159 tons of barium into the environment in 1995. More than half was released to the soil. Some foods, such as Brazil nuts, seaweed, fish, and certain vegetables, may contain high amounts of barium.

Barium and barium compounds are used for many commercial processes. Barium sulfate is mined and used in oil and gas production, medical procedures, and the manufacture of paints, bricks, tiles, glass, and rubber. Other barium compounds are used in the manufacture of ceramics, pesticides, and oil and fuel additives. In addition, physicians often instruct their patients to swallow a barium compound solution as part of certain medical test procedures.

An Environmental Working Group analysis of barium tests reported by 29,280 public water suppliers in 41 states shows that between 1998 and 2003, 147 million people in 20,626 communities drank water contaminated with barium.

Barium interferes with natural immune system functioning. Barium compounds are extremely poisonous. At low doses, barium acts as a muscle stimulant, while higher doses affect the nervous system, causing cardiac irregularities, tremors, weakness, anxiety, dyspnea, and paralysis. This may be due to its ability to block potassium ion channels that are critical to the proper function of the nervous system.

As barium weakens the immune systems of the masses, we should expect to see statistically significant increases in various dis-eases that might normally be minimally occurring in a population with a fully-activated immune system.


Beryllium is a metal from metal refineries, coal burning, and pollution from electrical, aerospace and defense industries. Potential health impacts associated with beryllium include cancerous conditions, cardiovascular or blood toxicity, gastrointestinal or liver toxicity, immunotoxicity, kidney toxicity, reproductive toxicity, respiratory toxicity, and skin sensitivity.

An Environmental Working Group analysis of beryllium tests reported by 29,913 public water suppliers in 41 states shows that between 1998 and 2003, 6.9 million people in 720 communities drank water contaminated with beryllium.


Molybdenum is a by-product of copper and tungsten mining. It is used as an alloy for various metals, and it occurs naturally in soil and rock. Potential health impacts associated with molybdenum include neurotoxicity and reproductive toxicity. Plants can, under certain conditions accumulate large concentrations of molybdenum. Molybdenum uptake by plants increases with increased soil pH. Molybdenum can cause acute clinical disease and subsequent death by interfering with copper metabolism.

An Environmental Working Group analysis of molybdenum tests reported by 1,183 public water suppliers in nine states shows that between 1998 and 2003, 24.6 million people in 134 communities drank water contaminated with molybdenum. In 84 of these communities, tap water was contaminated at levels above health-based thresholds. Molybdenum remains unregulated in tap water, without a maximum legal limit.

Molybdenum is mobile in plants and in soil. It is less available in soils with a lower pH. Acid-leached forest and sandstone soils are generally low in molybdenum. Acid rain causes molybdenum to be released from the soil, which contaminates our water and food supply.


Phosphorus is a component of fertilizer and manure, and a pollutant in municipal wastewater discharges. Potential health impacts associated with phosphorus include cardiovascular or blood toxicity, gastrointestinal or liver toxicity, kidney toxicity, musculoskeletal toxicity, neurotoxicity, reproductive toxicity, respiratory toxicity, and skin sensitivity.

Organic phosphate fertilizers contain radionuclides (such as radium, radon, radioactive lead, polonium, thorium, etc), toxic metals, and fluorine.

Phosphate fertilizers are manufactured from phosphate rocks and, according to their origin, may contain various micronutrients (cobalt, copper, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, zinc) and heavy metals considered toxic (arsenic, aluminum, beryllium cadmium, lead, mercury, and vanadium) (Camelo et al., 1997 and Mirlean et al., 2001). The build up of toxic heavy metals and fluorine in soils as a result of continuous application of phosphate fertilizers has never been mentioned to the general public.

The phosphate rocks are also enriched in uranium, thorium and their daughters, deposited as calcium phosphate minerals by isomorphic substitution (Pfister et al., 1976), since the natural uranium can substitute calcium in the phosphate rock structure due to the similarity in ionic size between U4+ and Ca2+ (Guzman, 1992).

Depending on geographic location where the phosphate rock is mined, it can contain from 50 – 200 ppm of uranium. Phosphate rock is the major source of ‘yellow cake’ (uranium oxide) for nuclear weapons and the nuclear power industry.

Where there is uranium in natural rock formations, there will also be all its carcinogenic decay rate products; such as radium, radon, radioactive lead, polonium, thorium, etc.

The tailings from phosphoric acid production (phosphate fertiliser), phosphorgypsum, are so radioactive that they are not allowed to be used for wall-board or road beds in the US and Canada – because it is considered a radiation hazard. However, organic growers are allowed to treat their fields with the raw, unprocessed product once every six years, with none of the contaminants processed out.

Taking a closer look at this ‘natural’ phosphate rock mix, we find for example polonium-210:

One particle of polonium-210 gives off 5,000 times more alpha radiation than the same amount of radium. Damage occurs in the body from complete tissue absorption of the energy of the alpha particle. Polonium-210 can be carcinogenic to people exposed to more than 0.03 microcuries (6.8 trillionths of a gram). There are also high levels of Radium and Polonium-210 in granite dust, which is used by organic farmers, is some parts of the world as a soil conditioner.

Polonium is carried throughout the body in the blood. It has been linked to more soft- tissue cancers than cancerous bones; typical sites are the liver, spleen, and kidney. The most important pathway for radionuclide contamination of the food is the uptake by plant from the ground through the roots. Once the contaminated foods have been ingested by man or animals, the radionuclides produce an internal radiation dose in the specific organs where they accumulate.

Polonium is found in tobacco grown with phosphate fertilizers. Studies have suggested that radioactive polonium may be the primary cause of smoking-related cancers.

Our water supplies are being flooded with radioactive elements, especially radon. It is important to note that these do not simply dissipate in a few days, months, or years – these radioactive elements will emit radon for many thousands of years.

The long-continued application of phosphate fertilizers and their by-products can redistribute and elevate heavy metal concentrations in soil profiles, and,
consequently, their availability for plants and subsequent transfer to the human food chain, mainly in acid soils.

Additionally, the long-continued application of phosphate fertilizers can also raise the heavy metal concentrations in irrigation runoff/drainage from fertilized lands, and, then, their application in agricultural soils constitute another source for workers and members of the public. One ounce @ 5.0% phosphate (about the amount used to fertilize one organic tomato plant as recommended by some organic growers) contains about 1.4 grams of fluoride, which is enough to kill a small child.

An Environmental Working Group analysis of phosphorus tests reported by 162 public water suppliers in 7 states shows that between 1998 and 2003, 3.3 million people in 113 communities drank water contaminated with phosphorus. In all of these communities, tap water was contaminated at levels above health-based thresholds. Phosphorus remains unregulated in tap water, without a maximum legal limit. Water suppliers reporting tests for phosphate (1998-2003): 258 of 39,751.


25 APR 2007 | A bill to set national safety standards for toxic rocket fuel perchlorate, found in drinking water supplies in more than 20 states, is moving in Congress. However, perchlorate is currently an unregulated contaminant. Officials found the rocket fuel ingredient perchlorate at up to 1,300 parts per million in the fall – roughly 166 times higher than acceptable limits. Perchlorate is a toxic chemical from military- industrial activities and the use of Chilean nitrate fertilizer.

Production and use estimates of perchlorate are hard to come by: the military considers the numbers secret, and fertilizer producers will not share them, saying they are proprietary information.

Perchlorate can affect thyroid function – because perchlorate is an ion that inhibits the transport of iodide into the thyroid. Scientists have found that a significant number of people are at risk of thyroid depression from perchlorate exposure. Extensive data indicate that thyroid- pituitary disruption is the sole mode of action for the observed thyroid tumors caused by perchlorate in rodents.

A series of critical new studies by scientists at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention show that the EPA’s proposed safe exposure level
for the contaminant “perchlorate” is not protective of public health. To add insult to injury, the California Environmental Protection Agency recently raised the limit on the amount of perchlorate allowed in drinking water by 50%. Currently there are no enforceable perchlorate safety standards, but Environmental Working Group (EWG) argues that a national safety standard should be no higher than one-tenth the EPA’s currently recommended level.

Preliminary data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention show that the amount of perchlorate in urine is too high to be from drinking water alone. Studies have found perchlorate in rainwater and common foods produced in the U.S., such as dairy products and produce. Perchlorate is also found in produce worldwide.

In the first-ever tests of perchlorate in off-the-shelf supermarket produce, EWG found contamination averaging 4 times more than what the EPA says is safe in drinking water. The chemical has also been found in prenatal vitamins and seaweed. Perchlorate can remain in food even after it is cooked.

Blast from the past: billions of kilograms of Chilean nitrate fertilizer contaminated with perchlorate left a lasting impression. Between 1909 and 1929, the U.S. imported an estimated 19 million tons of Chilean nitrate. The United States still uses 75,000 short tons of Chilean nitrate annually.

Overall, fresh fruits and vegetables from California and Central and South America had the highest levels of perchlorate. Just one serving of some fruits can contain enough perchlorate to exceed the National Academy of Sciences safe daily dose by 25%, and wines and beers pack a bigger perchlorate punch than waters, according to a new study that measures perchlorate concentrations in fruits, wines, and beers from around the world. The food contribution to daily perchlorate exposure looks to be a horrendous disaster attributed to intensive farming, irresponsible agricultural practices, and military-industrial activities.

Perchlorate’s interference with iodide uptake by the thyroid gland can decrease production of thyroid function, which is needed for prenatal and postnatal growth and development, as well as for normal metabolism and mental function in the adult.

Perchlorate is present in virtually all milk samples; the average concentration in breast milk is five times higher than in dairy milk. Studies testify that high levels of perchlorate in breast milk put the nation’s infants at risk for developmental problems. Thyroid function is critical for development of the fetal and
neonatal brain, as well as for many other aspects of fetal growth. The high levels of perchlorate in breast milk are cause for serious concern and should lead to immediate government action to protect the public health.

An Environmental Working Group analysis of perchlorate tests reported by 982 public water suppliers in 7 states shows that between 1998 and 2003, 26.2 million
people in 86 communities drank water contaminated with perchlorate. In 8 of these communities, tap water was contaminated at levels above health-based thresholds.
Perchlorate remains unregulated in tap water, without a maximum legal limit. Perchlorate is a known endocrine disruptor.

Wells in Los Angles California and Santa Clarita California have tested positive for perchlorate.


Asbestos is a mineral fiber from decay of asbestos cement in water mains. Potential health impacts associated with asbestos include cancer, immunotoxicity, and respiratory toxicity.

An Environmental Working Group analysis of asbestos tests reported by 2,533 public water suppliers in 26 states shows that between 1998 and 2003, 8.6 million people in 147 communities drank water contaminated with Asbestos. In 2 of these communities, tap water was contaminated at levels above health-based thresholds.

Contaminants Index

Drinking water, including most bottled, reverse osmosis, and distilled water may reasonably be expected to contain some contaminants. U.S. EPA sets standards for approximately 90 contaminants in drinking water.

The following are common contaminants found in public water, their potential health effects, and the type of water filters that are capable of removing them:

2,4,5TP: This is an herbicide that is used on crops and right-of-way areas. It can cause liver and kidney damage. The maximum contaminant level is 0.05mg/L. A water filter that removes Volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) will remove this compound. NSF standard 53.

2,4-D: This is an herbicide used on wheat, corn, range lands and lawns. The maximum amount allowed in public water is 0.07mg/L. Like the above herbicide it causes liver and kidney damage. A charcoal/carbon filter (Standard 53) that removes VOCs will remove this contaminant.

Alachor: This is an herbicide used on corn, soybeans, and other crops. The maximum amount allowed in public water is 0.002 mg/L. It is a carcinogen (i.e. it causes cancer). A carbon/charcoal filter Standard 53, that removes VOCs will remove this contaminant.

Arsenic: This is a heavy metal. It comes from smelters, glass and electronic wastes as well as from orchards and natural deposits. The maximum contaminant level for arsenic is 0.010 mg/L. Its potential health hazards include skin and nervous system toxicity. Arsenic is found in water in two different forms: pentavalent (also known as Arsenic 5 or arsenate) and Trivalent (Arsenic 3 or Arsenite). Chlorine converts trivalent to pentvalent arsenic. Carbon/charcoal, reverse osmosis filters as well as distillation will remove this contaminant. Distillation will remove trivalent and pentvalent arsenic, while reverse osmosis will remove pentvalent only. Look for Standards 53, 58, or 62.

Asbestos: This contaminant comes from natural deposits and asbestos cement used in water systems. The maximum contaminant level is 7 million fibers per liter. It is a serious carcinogen. Carbon/charcoal and reverse osmosis remove this contaminant.

Atrazine: This is an herbicide used on corn and on non crop land. It can cause mammary gland tumors. Its maximum contaminant level is 0.003 mg/L. Carbon/charcoal standard 53 filters will remove this contaminant. It is part of the VOC category.

Bacteria: Bacteria are not supposed to be found in our public waters. But occasionally they may contaminate the water we drink. Sources are naturally occurring or from human or animal wastes. Most of them cause gastrointestinal disorders. Ultraviolet treatment is usually necessary for removal of these contaminants, or look for NSF standard 55 filters. Class A inactivates or removes micro-forms from contaminated water (not raw sewage) and Class B disinfection systems remove naturally occurring organisms found in public waters that are deemed non-pathogenic.

Barium: This is a found in natural deposits, epoxy sealants, pigments and spent coal. Its maximum contaminant level is 2 mg/L. It can potentially affect the circulatory system. Cation exchange softeners, reverse osmosis and distillation will remove barium. Look for standards 44, 58 and 62.

Cadmium: This is found in galvanized pipe corrosion, natural deposits, batteries and paints. It primarily effects the kidneys. Its maximum contaminant level is 0.005 mg/L. Reverse osmosis, distillation remove it. Standards 58 and 62
Carbufuran: This is a soil fumigant used on corn and cotton. It effects the nervous reproductive systems. Its maximum contaminant level is 0.04 mg/L. Carbon/charcoal standard 53 remove this. It is part of the VOC category.

Chloramine: The effects of this contaminant are unknown. It is used as a disinfectant. The maximum recommended usage level is 4 mg/L. Carbon/charcoal filters, standard 42 remove this contaminant. Systems certified for reduction of chlorine will not necessarily be effective against chloramines.

Chlordane: This is used for treating termites. Maximum contaminant level is 0.002. It can cause cancerous conditions. Carbon/charcoal filters, Standard 53 will remove this contaminant.

Chlorides: Cause water to taste salty. Maximum contaminant level is 250 mg/L. These come from natural deposits. Reverse osmosis and distillation may remove these.

Chlorine: This is used for disinfection of drinking water. The chlorination by-products (trihalomethanes) have potential health effects. Carbon/charcoal standard 42 filters will remove chlorine. Contact your local water utility to determine if chlorine or chloramines are used to disinfect your water.

Chlorination by-Products (trihalomethanes): These are by-products of chlorination in drinking water and they are carcinogenic. The maximum contaminant level is 0.08 mg/L. Carbon/charcoal standard 53 filters are effective at reducing these contaminants.

Chromium: This is a by-product of mining, electroplating, pigments and from natural deposits. It can be present in water in forms: hexavalent (chromium 6) and trivalent (chromium 3). It can cause liver, kidney and circulatory disorders. Reverse osmosis and distillation Standards 53,58 and 62 remove chromium.

Copper: From natural and industrial deposits, wood preservatives, and plumbing. It may leach from residential plumbing. The maximum contaminant level is 1.3 mg/L. It can cause gastrointestinal irritation. Charcoal/carbon, reverse osmosis, and distillation, Standards 42, 58 and 62 remove this contaminant.

Crytosporidium: This is a parasite that is found in food or water contaminated with human or animal waste. It can cause gastrointestinal illness. Although public
water should not have any cryptosporidium in it, it is not uncommon to see people in the Portland area test positive on stool test for it. Standard 53, 58 and 55 water filters should remove it. Look for a filter capable of removing spores < 1 micron.

-dichlorobenzene: part of the VOC category. From paints, engine cleaning compounds, dyes, chemical wastes. Causes liver, kidney and blood cell damage. Carbon block standard 53 removes.

Hepatochlor Epoxide: A degradation product of heptachlor which is used in insectides, particularly for termite eradication. It is a carcinogen. Allowable amount is 0.0002 mg/L. Carbon block, standard 53 removes this. This contaminant is part of the VOC category.

Hydrogen sulfide: causes the rotten egg odor in water. It is a naturally occurring chemical in water. Carbon block, standard 42 filters remove it.

Iron: Maximum allowable amount is 0.3mg/L. It can stain laundry, plumbing and appliances. It is from natural deposits in the water. Carbon/charcoal filter, standard 42 will remove it.

MTBE: From gasoline spills, underground gas tank leakages. The potential health effects include cancer, developmental toxicity, gastrointestinal or liver toxicity, kidney toxicity, neurotoxicity, and skin sensitivity. Carbon block, standard 53 will remove it.

Nitrite: Can cause methemoglobulinemia (blue baby syndrome). From animal waste, fertilizer, natural deposits, septic tanks, sewage. Maximum allowable level is 1 mg/L. It rapidly converts to nitrate. Reverse osmosis, standard 53, 58, 62 remove this

PCBs: from the coolants used in electrical transformers and plasticizers. PCBs are known carcinogens. Maximum allowable amount is 0.0005 mg/L. Carbon block filters, standard 53 remove this contaminant.

Radium: This is a naturally occurring carcinogen. It can cause cancerous bones. Filters that remove it are reverse osmosis and cation exchange softeners, standard 44 and 58.

Radon: Another naturally occurring contaminant, it is also a carcinogen and is a risk factor for cancerous lung. Carbon/charcoal and aeration devices remove it. Look for a standard 53.

Selenium: maximum contaminant level is 0.05 mg/L. It is from natural deposits, mining, smelting, coal/oil combustion. Too much selenium can cause liver damage. Standard 58, 62 reverse osmosis filters will reduce selenium.

Sulfates: can cause gastrointestinal irritation. They are naturally occurring. Reverse osmosis or distillation may be effective at removing.

Sulfuric acid and nitric acid: acid rain occurs when sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides are emitted into the atmosphere, undergo chemical transformations. Reverse osmosis, distillation, carbon/charcoal filters will not remove them – the water needs to be ionized.

Styrene: Maximum allowable amount 0.10 mg/L. Styrene is from plastic, rubber, resin and drug industries. It also can leach from landfills into the ground water. It causes liver and nervous system damage.

Taste and odor: From natural sources and additives. Carbon/charcoal standard 42.

Total dissolved solids: Come from the erosion of naturally occurring mineral deposits. TDS’s antagonizes the assimilation of other minerals and causes secondary mineral deficiencies. They can also cause gastrointestinal irritation in some people. Maximum level should not exceed 500 mg/L. Standard 42, 58, 62 distillation, reverse osmosis remove these.

Toxaphene: A carcinogenic insecticide that was used on cattle, cotton, and soybeans. Standard 53, carbon/charcoal filter to remove it.

Trichloroethylene: A carcinogen found in textile, metal and adhesive degreasers. Carbon/charcoal standard 53 removes it. This is part of the VOC category.

Turbidity: from soil run off, it can interfere with disinfection and filtration. Charcoal/carbon; reverse osmosis standards 53, 58 can remove.

Uranium: Causes kidney problems, cancer. Maximum allowable amount is 0.03 mg/L. Filtration systems are not currently certified to remove uranium although reverse osmosis, distillation or anion exchange resins may.


Coliform bacteria are common in the environment and are generally not harmful. However, the presence of these bacteria in drinking water is usually a result of a problem with the treatment system or the pipes which distribute water, and indicates that the water may be contaminated with germs that can cause disease.

Fecal Coliform and E coli are bacteria whose presence indicates that the water may be contaminated with human or animal wastes. Micro-forms in these wastes can cause short-term effects, such as diarrhea, cramps, nausea, headaches, or other symptoms.

Turbidity has no health effects. However, turbidity can interfere with disinfection and provide a medium for biological transformation. Turbidity may indicate the presence of dis-ease causing organisms. These organisms include bacteria, yeast, mold and parasites that can cause symptoms such as nausea, cramps, diarrhea, and associated headaches.

Cryptosporidium is a parasite that enters lakes and rivers through sewage and animal waste. It causes cryptosporidiosis, a mild gastrointestinal disease. However, the dis-ease can be severe or fatal for people with severely weakened immune systems. EPA and CDC have prepared advice for those with severely compromised immune systems who are concerned about Cryptosporidium.

Giardia lamblia is a parasite that enters lakes and rivers through sewage and animal waste. It causes gastrointestinal illness (e.g. diarrhea, vomiting, cramps).


Alpha emitters. Certain minerals are radioactive and may emit a form of radiation known as alpha radiation. Some people who drink water containing alpha emitters in excess of EPA’s standard over many years may have an increased risk of increased acidity leading to cancerous tissue and tumor formation.

Beta/photon emitters. Certain minerals are radioactive and may emit forms of radiation known as photons and beta radiation. Some people who drink water containing beta and photon emitters in excess of EPA’s standard over many years may have an increased risk of cellular transformation, increased acidity leading to cancerous tissue.

Combined Radium 226/228. Some people who drink water containing radium 226 or 228 in excess of EPA’s standard over many years may have an increased risk of cellular transformation and increased acidity leading to cancerous states.

Radon gas can dissolve and accumulate in underground water sources, such as wells, and in the air in your home. Breathing radon can cause the fermentation of lung tissue and cancerous lungs. Drinking water containing radon presents a risk of developing cancer. Radon in air is more dangerous than radon in water.

Haloacetic Acids. Some people who drink water containing haloacetic acids in excess of EPA’s standard over many years may have an increased risk of cancerous tissue.

Bromate. Some people who drink water containing bromate in excess of EPA’s standard. Bromate is a disinfection by-product of ozonation. Potential health impacts associated with Bromate include cancerous tissue and kidney toxicity.

An Environmental Working Group analysis of Bromate tests reported by 73 public water suppliers in 16 states shows that between 1998 and 2003, 3.9 million people in 20 communities drank water contaminated with Bromate. In 11 of these communities, tap water was contaminated at levels above health-based thresholds. Water suppliers reporting tests for Bromate (1998-2003): 73 of 39,751.

MTBE is a fuel additive, commonly used in the United States to reduce carbon monoxide and ozone levels caused by auto emissions. Due to its widespread use, reports of MTBE detections in the nation’s ground and surface water supplies are increasing. The Office of Water and other EPA offices are working with a panel of leading experts to focus on issues posed by the continued use of MTBE and other oxygenates in gasoline. EPA is currently studying the implications of etting a drinking water standard for MTBE.

Potential health impacts associated with MTBE include cancerous conditions, developmental toxicity, gastrointestinal or liver toxicity, kidney toxicity, neurotoxicity, and skin sensitivity.

An Environmental Working Group analysis of MTBE tests reported by 16,866 public water suppliers in 30 states shows that between 1998 and 2003, 32.7 million people in 632 communities drank water contaminated with MTBE. MTBE remains unregulated in tap water, without a maximum legal limit. Water suppliers reporting tests for MTBE (1998-2003): 16,866 of 39,751.

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